beethoven-monumentMultiple sources of research supported this novel. Although the search went far and wide for several decades, including two trips to Vienna, the  sources below comprised the majority of the research.


The American Heritage, History of the Making of the Nation 1783-1860

The Annals of America, Vol. 5, 1821-1832, Steps Toward Equalitarianism; 1976

Braunbehrens, Volkmar, Mozart in Vienna 1781-1791; 1986

Breuning, Gerhard von, Memories of Beethoven; 1992

Brohaugh, William, English Through the Ages, From Old English to modern-day slang, a word-by-word birth record of thousands of interesting words; 1998

Carson, Jane, Travelers in Tidewater Virginia, 1700-1800

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Colonial Williamsburg (series of quarterly magazines)

Colonial Williamsburg, The Printer in 19th Century Williamsburg – An Account of his Life and of his Craft; 1955

Cooper, Barry, The Beethoven Compendium – A Guide to Beethoven’s Life & Music

Dabney, Virginius, Virginia, The New Dominion – A history from 1607 to the present; 1971

Dizikes, John, Opera in America – A Cultural History; 1993

Downing, Sarah Jane, Fashion in the Time of Jane Austen

Durant, Will & Ariel, The Age of Napoleon; 1975

Goldstein, Robert Justin, Political Repression in 19th Century Europe; 1983

Hamburger, Michael, Beethoven – Letters, Journals & Conversations

Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies, The Beethoven Journal (series of quarterly magazines)

Kalischer, A.C., Beethoven’s Letters; 1972

Kelly, Thomas Forrest, First Nights – Five Musical Premieres; 2000

Kerst, Friedrich and Krehbiel, Henry Edward, editors, Beethoven: the man and the artist, as revealed in his own words; 1964

King, David, Vienna 1814 – How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War, and Peace at the Congress of Vienna; 2008

Landon, H.C. Robbins, Mozart & Vienna; 1991

Larkin, Jack, The Reshaping of Everyday Life 1790-1840; 1989

Lockwood, Lewis, Beethoven – The Music and the Life; 2003

Loesser, Arthur, Men, Women, & Pianos – A Social History; 1954

Maddocks, Melvin, The Atlantic Crossing; 1981

McCutcheon, Marc, The Writer’s Guide to Everyday Life in the 1800s; 1993

Morgan, Timothy E., Williamsburg – A City That History Made

Musulin, Stella, Vienna in the Age of Metternich – From Napoleon to Revolution 1805-1848; 1975

Rorabaugh, W.J., The Craft Apprentice From Franklin to the Machine Age of America; 1986

Rouse Jr., Parker, Remembering Williamsburg – A Sentimental Journey through Three Centuries; 1989

Scherman, Thomas K. and Biancolli, Louis, editors, The Beethoven Companion; 1972

Silver, Rollo G., The American Printer 1787-1825; 1967

Solomon, Maynard, Beethoven Essays; 1988

Sonneck, O.G., ed., Beethoven – Impressions by His Contemporaries; 1954

Sonner, Wayne M., Wallace, Robin and Meredith, William, The Critical Reception of Beethoven’s Compositions by His German Contemporaries, Volume 1; 1999

Sullivan, Margaret C., The Jane Austen Handbook – Proper Life Skills from Regency England; 2007

Taylor, Dale, Everyday Life in Colonial America From 1607-1783; 1997

Thayer, Alexander Wheelock, Thayer’s Life of Beethoven; 1921

Tocqueville, Alexis de, Democracy in America; 1969

Zwelling, Shomer S., Quest for a Cure – The Public Hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia, 1773-1885; 1985


Colonial Williamsburg Digital Library


Greenberg, Ph.D., Robert, How to Listen to and Understand Great Music, 3rd Edition.

PBS’ Napoleon – Soldier, Emperor, Lover, Statesman